Why you Should Visit Uganda.
Over a period of time, Uganda has gone ahead to become the tourism powerhouse of both East and Central Africa. There are many reasons that reliably support this argument:-
Location: 1.28°N 32.39°E
National Motto: For God and My Country.
Capital (and largest) city: Kampala.
Official language(s): English, Swahili
Ethnic groups: Baganda 16.9%, Banyankole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, others 29.6%
Area: Total 91,136 sq mi, where 15.39% is covered by water.
Population as of 2012 estimate: 35,873,253
Population Density: 355.2/sq mi
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) as of 2011: Total $46.368 billion, Per capita $1,317
Nominal GDP as of 2011: Total $16.810 billion, Per capita $477
Gini Coefficient as of 1998: 43 (medium)
Human Development Index as of 2011: 0.446 (low)
Time zone: EAT (UTC+3)
Calling code: +256
Uganda officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa which is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania.
Although landlocked, Uganda contains many large lakes; besides Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga, there are Lake Albert, Lake Edward and Lake George.
Geography and Climate of Uganda.
Uganda towers about 1,100 metres (3,609 ft) above sea level, and this slopes very steadily downwards to the Sudanese Plain to the north. Uganda lies almost completely within the Nile basin.
Lake Kyoga makes a rough boundary between Bantu speakers in the south and Nilotic and Central Sudanic language speakers in the north. Bantu speakers or the northern tribes can be described in terms of physical characteristics, clothing, bodily adornment, and mannerisms, but some people claim that those differences are disappearing.
The climate in Uganda is determined by the altitude and therefore it is not unifrom. Southern Uganda is wetter with rain generally spread throughout the year. At Entebbe on the northern shore of Lake Victoria, the peak of the rainy season is from March to June and in the November/December period. Further to the north a dry season gradually emerges; at Gulu about 120 km from the South Sudanese border, November to February is much drier than the rest of the year.
The northeastern Karamoja region has the driest climate and is prone to droughts in some years.Mount Rwenzori region, a snow peaked mountainous region , receives heavy rain throughout the year.Southern Uganda is seriously influenced by Lake Victoria, which contains many islands.
Uganda is a presidential republic and the president is the head of state and head of government The president and representatives to the national parliament are elected on a 5 year term through adult suffrage.
Uganda is based on a Multi party system of governance.
The president nominates cabinet ministers (who include the vice president,the prime minister and otheres) and state minsters and he selects them mostly from alrready elected representatives to he parliament but it is not a must,one can become a minister even he is not elected into parliament.Most of the ministers are from the same politial party(NRM) as the president.
Then parliament approves the ministers after nomination.
The president also appoints the chief justice and high court judges.
Yoweri Kaguta Museveni - President (2011 to 2016 )
Hon.Edward Ssekandi - Vice President
Rt.Hon.Ruhakana Rugunda - Prime Minister.
Justice Bart Katureebei - Chief Justice
Hon.Rebecca Kadaga - Speaker of Parliament
Hon.Jacob Oulanya - Assistant Speaker of parliament
Gen. Edward Karekyezi Kayihura-Inspector general of police
Gen.Katumba Wamala- Commander of the Armed forces of Uganda(Uganda Peoples Defence forces)Human Movement into in Uganda.
Human existance in Uganda and East Africa can be traced to more than Millions of years ago,based on the fossils that have been discovered by archeologists over the years.
As the Bantu ethnic group expanded over the centuries, a form of government by clan chiefs was discovered and subsequently adopted. This kinship-organized system was for purposes of coordinating work projects, settling internal disputes, and carrying out religious observances.Ater some time,these people observed that this system could only govern only a limited number of people.states were formed by the end of the first millennium AD, and some of them would ultimately govern over 1,000,000 subjects each.
Pastoralists who were of Nilotic Origin were of nomadic nature and spent most of time carrying out raids to appropriate the cattle of others using arms and using the same arms to defend their own cattle. Influencial decisions were made group elders. When they mixed with the Bantu,they acquired the ideas and symbols of political chiefship from the Bantu and they offered military protection to those influencial and wealthy Bantu with whose elites they sometimes joined and intermarried. It is argued a system of patron-client relationships developed, whereby a pastoral elite emerged, entrusting the care of cattle to subjects who used the manure to improve the fertility of their increasingly overworked gardens and fields.
In some regions, pastoral elites were of partly Nilotic origin, while in others they may have evolved mainly from the Bantu population.
The first states are alleged to have been established between the 13th and 15th centuries by a the Chwezi,which was goup of pastoral rulers. Legends depicted the Chwezi as supernatural beings, but their material remains at the archaeological sites of Bigo and Mubende disproved these baseless legends and proved they were actually human and perhaps among the ancestors of the modern Hima or Tutsi pastoralists of Western Uganda,Rwanda and Burundi. During the 15th century, the Chwezi were displaced by a new Nilotic-speaking pastoral group called the Bito. The Chwezi are said to have moved south of present-day Uganda to establish kingdoms in northwest Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi.
The Tutsi were later to be seen in Rwanda and Burundi and their Kinsmen,Hima,to be seen in South Western Uganda.Rulers and their pastoral relatives attempted to maintain strict separation from the agricultural subjects, called Hutu / Bairu. The Hima / Tutsi rulers lost their Nilotic language and became Bantu speakers, but they preserved an ideology of superiority in political and social life.
The Bito style of administration, totally different from that of the Hima, was established in Bunyoro, which for several centuries was the dominant political power in the region. Bito immigrants displaced the influential Hima and secured power for themselves as a royal clan, ruling over Hima pastoralists and Hutu agriculturalists alike.The weakness of the Bito ideology was that,every member of the Bito Clan was a possible ruler. But there was always a danger of a coup de'tat where power struggles and political instability were later to hinderthe growth of this State.
This area on the northern shores of Lake Victoria of swamp and hillside was not attractive to the rulers of pastoral states further north and west where the wealth of the ruling class continued to depend more on banana lands and groves than cattle.This area became a refuge area mostly for those who wished to escape rule by Bunyoro or for factions within Bunyoro who were defeated in power struggles.
A group like that from Bunyoro, headed by Prince Kimera, arrived in Buganda early in the 15th century. Kimera seized the initiative in the trend of supraclan organisation and became the first effective Kabaka (ruler) of the new Buganda state.Ganda oral traditions have since covered up this intrusion from Bunyoro by claiming that quasisupernatural forces brought the Kabakas into existance.
Each king was identified with the clan of his mother, rather than that of his father. A woman from any clan could and even today can still become a wife to the Kabaka.When the Kabaka died,his successor was chosen by clan elders from among the eligible princes, each of whom belonged to the clan of his mother. In this way, the throne was never the property of a single clan for more than one reign. Bunyoro's power began to faulter in the 18th century, with the seccession of the Toro kingdom and more importantly the rise of Buganda.
After a period of defensive strategies,the Baganda embarked on a vigorous program of conquest and and by mid-19th century, Buganda had quadrupled its territory, conquering a bigger part of Bunyoro and becoming a "big boy" in the region.These Conquered states were put under the governorship of some kind ond of governors called chiefs"Abaami "appointyed by the Kabaka. On Lake Victoria (Nnalubaale), a royal navy of outrigger boats / ships, commanded by an admiral who was chief of the Lungfish / emmamba clan, could carry Baganda commandos to raid any shore of the lake. Henry Morton Stanley visited Buganda in 1875 and recorded that at one time,Buganda army had a 125,000 troops strong force marching off on a single campaign to the east, where a fleet of 230 war canoes waited to act as auxiliary naval support.
In Buganda's capital,Mengo in present day Kampala, Stanley found a well-ordered and organized town of about 40,000 surrounding the king's palace / Lubiri, which was set up on top of a hill and A wall more than four kilometers in circumference surrounded the palace compound, which was filled with grass-roofed houses, meeting halls, and storage buildings. At the entrance to the court burned the royal fire, which would only be put out when the kabaka died. Thronging the grounds were foreign ambassadors seeking audiences, chiefs going to the royal advisory council, messengers running errands, and a corps of young pages, who served the kabaka while training to become future chiefs. For communication across the kingdom, the messengers were supplemented by drum signals.
Most communities in Uganda, however, were not organized on such a vast political scale. However,most of the communities in Uganda were not politically organized like this.
Until the mid-19th century, Uganda remained some how isolated from the outside world. The great lakes region was a world of its own where internal trade, a great power rivalry between Buganda and Bunyoro took the turn of the days .Not to be sustained for so long,intrusion by outsiders finally came in form of long-distance trade.
Ivory had been a consistent trade item at the East African coast even before the Christian era. Increse in world demand in the 19th century leading large caravans financed by Indian moneylenders.Arab traders originating from Zanzibar reached Lake Victoria in Buganda by 1844.
By the 1860s, the Kabaka and his chiefs had began to dress in cloth called "mericani" (derived from "American"), which was far better in quality than European or Indian cloth.It was woven in Massachusetts and shipped to Zanzibar by American traders and this translated to more and more numbers of ivory tusks collected to pay for them. Bunyoro also was to attract foreign trade so as to keep at per with Buganda in their arms race and struggle for power and superiority in the great lakes region.
Bunyoro,under threats from the north by Egyptian-sponsored mercenaries who were after ivory and slaves but who, unlike the Arab traders from Zanzibar, were also carrying political ambitions with them. Khedive Ismail Pasha of Egypt had intented to build an empire on the Upper Nile and by the 1870s, his mercenaries who were also ivory and slave traders had reached the Bunyoro Fronts bracing for a showdown with this great African Empire. A British mercenary, Samuel Baker, acting at the orders of Khedive was sent to conquer Bunyoro and raise the Egyptian Flag over Bunyoro. The Banyoro staged a fierce and brave resistance and Baker had to fight a desperate battle to secure his escape. After defeat,Baker resorted to politial harmful and negative propagada and denounced the Banyoro in a book that was widely read in Britain regarding the resistance as an act of treachery. This was to later lead to the destruction of Bunyoro by the British Conquerors who came with a pre-ocupied mind about the Kingdom after ereading that book.This cost Bunyoro half of its territory until the "lost counties" were restored to Bunyoro after independence by Dr.Apollo Milton Obote(R.I.P),the former Ugandan leader.
Further North,the Acholi welcomed the foreigners since they were experienced hunters and ivory extractio became their most cherished economic activity.
That is why samuel Baker managed to used Acholi to build his only military establishment,Fort Patiko which he was to use to fight slave trade
Apart from traders, Buganda was having a steady flow of foreign visitors as well. John Hanning Speke passed through Buganda in 1862 and recorded he had discovered the source of the Nile. Both Speke and Stanley wrote books that praised the Baganda for their extra ordinary organisation and desire to modernise. Stanley attempted to convert Kabaka Mutesa I to Christianity and the Kaka was abit receptive, Stanley wrote to the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in London and persuaded it to send missionaries to Buganda in 1877.
Two years after the CMS established a mission, French Catholic White Fathers also arrived at the king's court, and it marked a fierce religious and nationalist rivalry in which Zanzibar-based Muslim traders also participated. By the mid-1880s, all three parties had converted substantial numbers of Baganda, some of whom attained important positions in the court. When Kabaka, Mwanga attempted to put the foreign ideologies that he deemed to be threatening the state intio check, he was deposed by the armed converts in 1888.A four-year civil war ensued in which the Muslims were initially successful and proclaimed an Islamic state. They were soon defeated, and were not able to renew their effort and many fled to different parts of Uganda and spred islam to the rest of Uganda.
The Kingdom was devided by Protestant and Catholic Converts and they ruled through a figurehead kabaka dependent on their guns and goodwill but this influence was shortlived and as the arrival of the German doctor Karl Peters (an erstwhile philosophy professor) and the British captain Frederick Lugard broke the Christian alliance as these Imperialists were competeing for influence in Buganda. the British Protestant mission pushed for acceptance of the British flag over Buganda, while the French Catholic mission either supported the Germans (in the absence of French imperialists) with whom they share religion,or called for Buganda to retain its independence.This confirmed a period of how Buganda was to loose its independence and to ruled along religious line rather than traditional means that had managed to hold it for centuries.
In January 1892, war broke out between the Protestant and Catholic Baganda converts at present day Kasubi and Kisenyi and the Catholics claimed quick victory until Lugard intervened with machine gun, the Maxim (named after its American inventor, Hiram Maxim) that was untested and it was proven to be an effective killing mahine that day after it claimed the lives of 1000s of Baganda Catholics.In the aftermath of the war and the defeat of the catholics by the protestants,the French Catholic mission was burned to the ground, and the French bishop fled. The scandal was settled in Europe when the British government compensated the French mission and persuaded the Germans to relinquish their claim to Uganda.This would mark the long journey of how African affairs and fate of Africans started to be decided millions of miles away in Europe.
Buganda,very sure of protection offered by Lugard, and the Germans no longer competing for control, the British began to implement their conquest plans which fell in line with Buganda's. Assisted by Nubian mercenaries who had previously worked for khedive of Egypt.
Bunyoro had not seen any crisis and was far way stronger than Buganda and was firmly united by its king, Kabarega, who had several regiments of troops armed with guns including Baganda exiles who had fled with Mwanga who,by theaway was in exile in Bunyoro.He had become a friend to Kabarega since in the African tradition,a neighbour is never an enemy,any disagreements are treated as such.So these two great African leaders invoked this law and they put up the firercest resistance the British had never seen!
After five years of bloody war, the British conquered Bunyoro , Kabalega and Mwanga were captured by troops led Simei Kakungulu,a muganda solidier nd they were sent to exile from where thay died later on.The British Conquered Acholi further North and the whole of northern Uganda, and the the Uganda Protectorate started to estimate shape
In 1893 the Imperial British East Africa Company (The colonial governing party) transferred the administration the territory consisting mainly of Buganda Kingdom to the British Government. In 1894 the Uganda Protectorate was established, and the territory was extended beyond the borders of Buganda to present day Uganda.
The Colonialists did much to change the traditional Structure of the late-nineteenth century African Society but it survived the test of time and it was to reemerge at the time of independence.
Colonial rule, however, affected local economic systems dramatically due to the introduction of compulsory cash crop growing after the Colonial Office in London ordered all the Governors of the Colonies to generate their own finances to run the colonies. The subsequent result of this was hunger, poverty and of course diseases originating form malnutrition.
A mutiny by Nubian mercenary troops in 1897 was seriously crushed after two years of fighting by the British and their Baganda Christian allies.
Suppressing the 1897 mutiny came at a very high cost because units of the British Indian Army were transported to Uganda, which was very expensive. The new commissioner of Uganda in 1900, Sir Harry H. Johnston, honored the order to internally generate the revenue to run the Colony from the Colonial office in London as quickly as possible. Johnston tabled an offer of jobs in the colonial administration in return for their collaboration, which did not interest the chiefs who were more interested in having a sovereign Buganda under the kabakas, and securing private land tenure for themselves and their preferred people. After fierce burgaining, the chiefs got everything they wanted, including one-half of all the land in Buganda. The half left for the British as "Crown Land" (which large part was found to be a swamp and scrub).
Johnston's Buganda Agreement of 1900 imposed huts and gun tax designated the chiefs as tax collectors. The British signed much less charitable treaties with the other kingdoms like Toro in 1900, Ankole in 1901, and lastly Bunyoro in 1933.The smaller chiefdoms like Busoga were ignored.
Baganda agents worked out as local tax collectors and labor organizers in areas such as Kigezi, Mbale, and, significantly, Bunyoro after offering themselves as administrators to the Colonial Office. This sub imperialism and Ganda cultural chauvinism were resisted by the people wherever these agents went, These Baganda insisted on the strict use of their language, Luganda, and they declared bananas as the only proper food worth eating. They regarded the dress they adopted from the Arabs to be their official traditional dress—long cotton gowns called kanzus-as civilized; all else was outdated and uncultured. They attempted to convert locals to their form of Christianity or Islam. The result was that their religious rivals, the Catholics won converts in areas where oppression was identified with a Protestant Muganda chief.
The issue of Buganda taking half of Bunyoro's territory and making "arrogant" Baganda administrators in Bunyoro caused the Banyoro to rebel in a 1907 rebellion called Nyangire, or "refusing," and the Baganda sub-imperial agents were instantly withdrawn.
Meanwhile, the 1901 completion of the Uganda Railway from the coast at Mombasa to the Lake Victoria port of Kisumu caused the 1902 decision to transfer the eastern section of the Uganda Protectorate to the Kenya Colony, then called the East Africa Protectorate, to keep the entire railroad line under one local colonial administration and also large scale Cash crop growing was encouraged to help the Colonial administrators meet the operating costs of the railway line.
In many areas of Uganda, agricultural production was placed in the hands of Ugandans if they so wished and cotton was encouraged, largely because of pressure by the British Cotton Growing Association, who directed the colonies to provide raw materials for British mills. This was done by cash cropping the land.
Buganda, benefited a lot from cotton growing because of its strategic location on the lake shores. The Baganda chiefs who had newly acquired freehold estates recognized this boom, which came to be known as mailo land and in 1905 the initial baled cotton export was valued at £200; in 1906, at £1,000; in 1907; at £11,000; and in 1908, at £52,000. By 1915 the value of cotton exports had climbed to £369,000.
The income from cotton sales made the Buganda kingdom some how prosperous, compared with the rest of colonial Uganda, although Busoga, Lango, and Teso grew the cotton may years later. Many Baganda spent their new earnings on many good things but the most important one is education of their children and as a result, in 1911 two popular journals, Ebifa and Munno were published monthly in Luganda.
New schools started churning out graduating classes at Mengo High School, St. Mary's Kisubi, Namilyango, Gayaza, and King's College Budo. The chief minister of the Buganda kingdom, Sir Apollo Kaggwa, personally awarded a bicycle to the top graduate at King's College Budo, together with the promise of a government job. The younger aspirants to high office in Buganda lost patience with the apparently unending term of Sir Apollo and his generation, who lacked the skills that members of the younger generation had got from school. These young educated Baganda attached themselves to the young kabaka, Daudi Chwa, but Kabaka Daudi never gained real political power, and after a short and frustrating reign, he died at the relatively young age of 43.
After World War I, British ex-military officers, then serving as district commissioners (DCs), observed that self-government was a hindrance to good governance. More so, they accused Sir Apollo and his generation of inefficiency, abuse of power, and failure to keep adequate financial accounts, charges that were obvious.
Sir Apollo resigned in 1926, and a host of elderly Baganda chiefs were replaced by a new generation of officeholders.
The commoners, who had been working on the cotton estates of the chiefs before World War I, bought small parcels of land from their erstwhile landlords.
Two issues continued to create conflict through the 1930s and 1940s. The colonial government strictly regulated the buying and processing of cash crops, regulating prices and reserving the role of middlemen for Asians. The British and Asians vehemently repelled African attempts of participating in cotton ginning.
In 1949 riots broke out in Buganda and houses of pro government chiefs were burnt down. The rioters' demands were the right to bypass government price controls on the export sales of cotton, the removal of the Asian monopoly over cotton ginning, and the right to have their own representatives in local government instead of appointed chiefs by the British. The British governor, Sir John Hall, regarded the riots as the work of communist-inspired agitators and rejected the suggested reforms.
The Uganda African Farmers Union, founded by I.K. Musazi in 1947, was blamed for the riots and was banned by the British. Musazi subsequently formed the Uganda National Congress, which replaced the banned farmers union in 1952 with Abu Mayanja as its first Secretary General, but because it remained a casual discussion group rather than an organized political party and as a result, it stagnated and disappeared after only just two years.
However, the British continued to prepare Uganda for independence.
Many developments out of and very far from Uganda like Britain's postwar withdrawal from India, the march of nationalism in West Africa, and a more liberal philosophy in the Colonial Office geared toward future self-rule started shaping affairs in Uganda in way that was preparing Ugandans for self rule. This was confirmed in 1952 in the arrival of a new and energetic reformist governor, Sir Andrew Cohen.
On the economic side, he removed obstacles to African cotton ginning, cancelled price discrimination against African-grown coffee, encouraged cooperatives, and formed
The Uganda Development Corporation to promote and finance new (agricultural and commercial) projects. On the political side, he restructured the Legislative Council, to include African representatives elected from districts throughout Uganda. This system became a sample for the future parliament.
Ugandans were scared of the existence of an East African federation dominated by the racist settlers of Kenya.
Kabaka Freddie, who had been looked at by his subjects as unconcerned about their welfare, now opposed Cohen's plan for an integrated Buganda. He demanded a federal status for Buganda and that Buganda had to be independent of a United Uganda. Cohen's responded by swiftly deporting the kabaka to a comfortable exile in London. The Baganda who harbored concealed separatism and anti-colonial sentiments saw the deported Kabaka as a martyr and subsequently set off a storm of protest. After two annoying years of merciless Ganda hostility and sabotage, Cohen was forced to reinstate Kabaka Freddie.
Cohen forced the Kabaka to sign an agreement not to oppose independence within the larger Uganda framework but on a positive note, he was given the power to appoint and dismiss his chiefs (Buganda government officials) instead of acting as a mere figurehead.
Opportunists claimed that the Kabaka was just a constitutional monarch ignoring the fact that he was to become a major player in the further affairs of the country. A new grouping of conservative Baganda who were fiercely loyal to Buganda as a kingdom and calling themselves "the King's Friends" united to defend the Kabaka and their condition was that they would accept the idea of participation in an independent Uganda only if it were headed by the Kabaka.
The major exceptions to this rule were the Roman Catholic Baganda who by the way had formed their own party, the Democratic Party (DP), led by Benedicto Kiwanuka. Many Catholics had been kept at bay from the Protestant-dominated politics in Buganda ever since Lugard's Maxim in 1892.
Catholic dominated was amazingly the most organized party and had a printing presses and the backing of the popular newspaper, Munno, which was published at the St. Mary's Kisubi mission.
Elsewhere in Uganda, the idea of the Kabaka becoming a national leader caused massive hostility. It is undeniable that Political groupings had a grave misunderstandings and disagreements on many issues but they were united by one concern that they shared; they were determined t end domination by the arrogant Baganda.
In 1960, a young and vibrant politician from Lango named Milton Obote, exploited the opportunity and formed a new party, Uganda People's Congress (UPC), as a coalition with by the way, Ignatius Musazi's Uganda National Congress which had been operating underground.
Buganda's population in 1959 was 2 million, out of Uganda's total of 6 million, not including at least 1 million non Baganda who were resident in Buganda and fiercely royal to the Kabaka—This figure was too many to be overlooked, but too few to dominate the country. The British announced that elections were to be held in March 1961. It was planned that winners were to gain valuable governing experience, which was to be applied in a short time afterwards.
As expected, the "King's Friends" mobilized a total boycott of the election. In Buganda only the Roman Catholic supporters of the DP ignored intense public pressure and voted, taking twenty of Buganda's twenty-one allotted seats and Benedicto Kiwanuka became the new Prime minister of Uganda.
The anti DP Baganda, observed that they were loosing out on the power bonanza and they made a turn around by quickly welcoming the recommendations of a British commission that proposed that Buganda would enjoy some internal autonomy if it participated fully in the unitary government. On the other side, UPC was very determined to eject its DP rivals from government before they became unshakable. Obote knocked a deal with Kabaka Yekka(a political party made by the Kabaka and "Kabaka's Friends"), accepting Buganda's special federal government and even powers for the kabaka to appoint Buganda's representatives to the National Assembly and also a ceremonial position of Head of state of Uganda, which was of great symbolic importance to the Baganda , in return for a strategic coalition to ensure defeat of DP.
The results of the April 1962 final election, UPC won 43 seats in the Uganda's national assembly, KY won 24 and DP took the remaining 24. Britain granted independence to Uganda in 1962 with Obote becoming the prime minister, and the kabaka became president a year later.
Bad blood between the President and the Kabaka originated from the fact that the Banyoro complained about the British government's recommendation in the early 1920s that the issue of the lost counties that had been rewarded to Buganda by Lugard be settled by the Ugandan leaders in the early years of independence.
A referendum was organized, the Baganda as expected boycotted it and the lost counties were returned to Bunyoro.
Subsequently, a riot broke out in Kampala, people dug up roads; the Kabaka expelled the central government from Buganda land and ordered the Prime minister to take it "elsewhere". There were allegations that there was a cache of arms in Lubiri Mengo(Kabaka's palace) which he was preparing to use for war against the government. This was equivalent to treason
The Prime Minister ordered the arrest of the Kabaka.The Kabaka's Palace in Mengo was attacked by the army commander Idi Amin.The Kabaka fled through Ankole to the United Kingdom from where he died peacefully later to what they called drinking a lot of alcohol at once but it was later alleged that he died of food poisoning set up by Obote
After the attack on Lubiri, the prime minister suspended the constitution and assumed all government powers, removing the positions of president and vice president.
In September 1967, the "pigeon hole “constitution declared Uganda a republic, gave the president even greater powers, and abolished the traditional kingdoms.
Obote Continued to have a strong and controversial foreign policy accusing western countries of supporting apartheid in South Africa accelerated the minority white racist regime.
While in the common wealth summit in Singapore, On 25 January 1971,the army commander declared himself president, dissolved the parliament, and amended the constitution to give himself absolute power, expelled Obote from Uganda and ordered him never to return to Ugnada.It is alleged that the British sponsored this coup d'etat to avenge the constant "bad mouthing" by Obote about apartheid in South Africa. Obote stayed in exile in neighboring Tanzania, hosted by his long time friend and fellow nationalist and pan africanist scholar, Julius Nyerere, the then president of Tanania.
It is alleged that the country witnessed the worst economic decline, social disintegration, and massive human rights violations since the colonial conquests in Bunyoro. The Acholi and Langi ethnic groups were particular objects of Amin's political persecution because they had supported Obote and made up a large part of the army. But this is not all true. Amin’s regime brought success to Ugandans but this success was not realized during his reign, it has been realized recently very many years after his rule, because compared to the neighboring countries, Ugandans feel they are in control of their country and Amin is the one who laid this foundation and made a permanent end to domination by outsiders like Asians and Europeans have dominated Kenya. These allegations have been largely promoted by negative political propaganda by both outsiders and Ugandans who disagreed with Amin in principle because of the obvious reasons.
Here are his successes: -
He built the current Entebbe International airport and he renovated the old airport (which the Isreal Commandos spoilt in their raid on the night of July 4th 1976 to free their citizens which had been held here by Palestinian hijackers) and allowed it to be used by UN Planes and Uganda Airforce.This plan is the still being followed
He built the Nakasongola airbase which is the headquarter of Uganda Air force.
He ensured that Ugandans get self-sustaining experience in doing business by giving them the businesses that previously belonged to Asians. Ugandans had been excluded since the colonial times by the colonial administration and treated unfairly in doing business. So Amin gave them a chance. Although this plan failed in the short term evidenced by the total collapse of the economy, in the long run, Ugandans got the much-needed experience, which they are still applying now. Asians had accumulated this wealth through unfair means!
He bought land in most countries all over the world and built Uganda embassies which are stil being used to house these diplomatic houses.
In the hospitality sector, he constructed one of Uganda's two five-star hotels in Kampala called Sheraton Hotel. Another one called Serena has just been built (in 2007) in preparation for Common wealth Summit of 2007 in Kampala. Even it was former Nile Hotel (Mansions) and Conference center, which was renovated and renamed Serena Hotel.
In the education Sector, Amin nationalized most of the private schools and church schools, built others and increased funding to schools and also made the infamous decree of the most best students at all levels in National Examinations to be trained as teachers. This in turn lifted Ugandan education standards because the teachers were the best and most of the best skilled workers in the country even now are products of this arrangement.
On his foreign policy, He continued pressing for the Liberation and full independence of Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and South Africa and he single handedly offered wepons and training to freedom fighters in these countries which was to be continued by his successor Museveni,it is because his Pan African Ideas that he managed to win the chairmanship of Organization of African Unity(currently African Union) on June 28th 1975 despite strong opposition from Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia because of obvious reasons.
It should be noted the first years of Amin were a period of harmony but problems started after Ugandan guerillas who had been living in exile in Tanzania led by Milton Obote and Yoweri Museveni(the current Ugandan leader) invaded Uganda on 17th September 1972.After this Amin started a deadly crackdown on all of his opponents and all those he or his intelligence network assumed as being such. Some times Innocent People would be tortured, jailed and executed without trial because of a breakdown in the rule of law and lack of a strong Justice system.
After being defeated, being nearly killed at Lyantonde when he was chased by 15 of Amin’s blood thirsty solidiers and he survived by faking death and subsequently escaping by a public taxi back to Tanzania, Yoweri Museveni launched Front for National Salvation (FRONASA).
Unfortunately, Amin did not live to see the success of his policies as he only reigned for 6 years and in these years their effect were catastrophic and their successes have come to be realized many years later!
However Amin made very controversial decisions like: -
On Dec.7th 1971,Amin cancelled more than 12000 applications for citizenship by Asians and the next ay while addressing the Asian Conference; Amin accused them of sabotage and ordered them to identify themselves with African interests.
On January 5th 1972,approximately one year after his take over, Amin told 15 Asian representatives that Uganda was not an Indian Country after one of them had written to him insisting that their citizenship rights were protected by the constitution.
On March 30th that year he closed the Israel Embassy and expelled all the Israelis.
On August 4th in the same year, Amin was addressing his soldiers in Tororo when he said that he was "requesting" Britain to assume responsibility for British Asian Citizens in Uganda. He expelled Ugandan Asians of British Origin, giving them only 90 days to leave Uganda one day later!
On August 9th,he extended the expulsion to Indian,Pakistan and Bangaladesh Asians.
On January 25th 1973,Amin announced the setting up of 20 public corporations to run the departed Asian Businesses.
On April 6th 1973, the government passed a decree making wearing of mini skirts ad dresses criminal.
On Jan 8th 1975,Amin declared overcharging, cheating and hoarding were treasonable cases punishable by death. This was pre-emptive action to counter the effects of acute shortage of commodities in the country after the total breakdown of the economy and the manufacturing sector.
His army announced plans to make him a life president 5 months and 19 days later!
On February 15th 1976,Amin claimed that the borders drawn by the British were wrongly drawn and Uganda was cheated of its territory and announced his plans to’’ reclaim’’ the lost territory by force and re-draw the borders to include parts of Northern Tanzania and part of Western Kenya, just 32 Km from Nairobi and parts of Southern Sudan. Kenya stood firm and threatened Amin with ‘dangerous’ consequences for Uganda and for him if he dared invade it.
On September 20th 1977,Amin'government banned 27 religious groups including born agains, Seventh Day Adventists, the Baptist church and Baha’i Faith accusing them of heresy. Only Islam, Catholicim, Protestantism and the Greek Orthodox were allowed to exist in Uganda.
On April 19th 1978,Amin implemented his territorial claims by force when he declared war on Tanzania‘to regain Uganda’s lost territory’ and to flush out guerrillas which were attacking Uganda from their Camps in Tanzania. This was later to arouse a fierce confrontation with Tanzania and the Tanzania army, supported by Ugandan Exiles launched a counter offensive, which was to dislodge Amin and his Army and Usher in a new regime.
Based on the Moshi Conferece, all anti Amin forces were united under an Umbrella government and they organized a transitional government to lead Uganda to free and fair elections of 1980.
Prof.Edward Rugumayo from Bushenyi in western Uganda became the head the umbrella Government’s National Consultative Council and Prof.Yusuf Lule became the head of the national Executive committee and an armed wing of the Uganda National Liberation front called the Uganda National Liberation Army was formed.
Finally on April 11th 1979,Kampala fell and Amin was overthrown and he fled the country
On April 13th 1979 Yusuf Lule was sworn in as the new president. Jeremiah Lucas Opira was the Secretary General.
However, this political marriage based on the famous idea that enemies always unite against a common enemy and once that enemy is eliminated, then their earlier enmity re-surfaces, so after Amin overthrowal, this umbrella government did not last for long and internal intrigue and power struggles caused visible cracks.
Lule disagreed with the NCC on the extent of presidential powers and insisted that he was not bound by the Moshi agreement and he made it clear that the 1967 constitution was in force and to prove this, he made changes in his government without consulting the NCC.
So to prove to him who had more powers, the NCC moved swiftly and wielded the axe by voting him out and replacing him with Godfrey Lukongwa Binaisa on June 20th 1979.
After this action, the Baganda proved that they had not changed and they still carried their arrogance with them after riots masterminded by Buganda broke out immediately in Kampala as people were chanting ‘No Lule, No work’.
Binaisa made the same ‘mistake’ as Lule by ‘over exaggerating’ the presidential powers. He did this by making changes in the government without consulting the NCC and these were: -
He transferred Defense Minister Yoweri Museveni to regional government but this was not very catastrophic enough, he made changes again, this time, demoting the very powerful and feared Paulo Muwanga from Internal affairs ministry and sent him to Geneva to become ambassador to Geneva, but as expected, Muwanga refused and he made him Minister of Labor.
Binaisa announced general elections from the local level to the presidential level to be held later that year of 1980 under the UNLF umbrella on March 25th 1980 but he banned all the old political parties and the NCC this time backed him. Democratic Party threatened to boycott the elections since it was sure of its popularity.
Binaisa made a blunder that cost him his office by removing the most feared Military person in the country at the time, Brig. Oyite Ojok from Chief of Staff position and appointed him ambassador to Algeria. The Military Commission under the chairmanship of Paulo Muwanga and Yoweri Museveni as his vice felt it was too much of a humiliation and very big to shoulder / take or so big a compromise to make and they responded by demonstrating who had real power by removing him from office subsequently putting him under house arrest! The military commission took leadership of the country making its Chairman and vice chairman President and Vice president respectively. Meanwhile, Ojok and Muwanga, behind Museveni's back hatched a plan to make Obote president through sham elections of 1980.
Finally Ojok and Muwanga arranged Obote’s return and he arrived on May 27th 1980 after many years in exile and he landed in Bushenyi and launched his second presidential bid.
Museveni also expressed interest in presidency and with his followers and supporters, he launched his party the Uganda Patriotic Movement and he became its chairman and was later elected its party president and its official presidential candidate. Other parties were formed including the conservative party under Josh Mayanja Nkangi as its president general.
Obote won the 1980 general elections where Obote, Paulo Kawanga Ssemwogere, Yoweri Museveni and Mayanja Nkangi participated and it was contested that UPC had stolen DP's victory.
On disagreement with the results of the 1980 elections, Museveni decided to solve his dissatisfaction by opting for armed rebellion and formed the Popular Resistance Army, which was originally made up of 40 men who had only 27 guns. This rebel group merged with Uganda Freedom Fighters led by Prof.Yusuf Lule to form the National Resistance Army with National Resistance Movement, as it's political wing.
On the day of February 6th 1981,Kabamba Military training school came under heavy artillery fire from the rebel group Led by Gen.Elly Tumwine a former fine-art teacher at Ntare School in Western Uganda under Museveni's orders.
The guerillas then retreated to Luwero where they set up fortress form where the war spread to the rest of the country.
Due to the hatred the former Libyan Leader, the Late Col Muammar Al-Quadaffi had for UNLA which had killed very many of his soldiers in the 1979 war against Iddi Amin and overthrown Amin, it was clear that when Museveni approached him for Support, he buried his anger since Museveni was among the UNLA group that had inflicted this massive pain on him and accepted to use this chance have his revenge. He responded by flying in his first batch of logistical supplies which included thousands of rifles, Machine Guns, Rocket Propelled Grenades and land mines. They were airdropped in Luweero. In addition, Ghaddaffi kept providing financial support to Museveni.
This kick-started Museveni's military campaign against Obote.
On March 13th 1981,Obote ordered an end to the fighting and the army launched ‘Operation Locate and Liquidate’ against the rebels and attempts to dislodge them from this area were counter-productive as many civilians died and these killings have been largely blamed on Obote's Army which was trying to eliminate his opponents.
The army had handled the situation lightly but when another Rebel group led by Andrew Lutakome Kayira attacked Nsambya barracks on February 23rd 1981, the army replied with a massive crack down nick named ‘Panda Gaali’ or ‘get on to the truck’ commanded by the District Commissioner (DC) of Kampala, the much feared Nsaba Buturo under the orders of Maj. Chris Rwakasisi, the then Minister of Security on civilians where many were picked and they disappeared in the process and were allegedly killed.
The UNLA took further steps and launched a counter offensive on NRA codenamed ‘Operation Bonanza’ under the command of Chief of staff, Brig.Oyite Ojok.
Oyite Ojok's operation registered a lot of successes as the rebels face a heavy fire form this determined solidier. They were heavily beaten and pushed out of most of the country and they retreated to the Rwenzori Mountains where they regrouped for a final counter attack which was to come after Oyite OJok’s death in a helicopter crash in a controversial death which was blamed on quarrels between Obote and Ojok who claimed to be more powerful than Obote since he had ‘arranged his return’ and ‘it was entirely because of him that Obote was on power’. This had initially alarmed Obote who was not ready to face another Coup by a ‘trusted’ senior army officer.
After diverting the army’s attention to else where,the NRA,attacked Kabamba again on January 1st 1985 and they overrun the barracks this time and the made off with all the arms and retreated this time not to Luwero but to the Rwenzori mountains.
It was at this stage after Ojok's death that the army became weaker after loosing its chief planner and strategist.
Some army officials started blaming the government accusing Obote for handling the war badly and Killing Ojok.
The Acholis and the Langi got disagreements and helped by senior government officials like Ambassador Olara Otunnu(the current UPC president),they retreated to Gulu and declared war on Obote.
An army brigade consisting of Acholi and commanded Brig.Olara Okello launched an offensive on Kampala on the day of July 22nd 1985 and after only 5 days of mutiny, on July 27th 1985,they overthrew Obote who fled again but this time to Zambia and later to South Africa from where he died on 10th October 2005.
Gen. Tito Okello, the former army commander was declared president and sworn in and immediately he requested peace talks with Museveni, a thing Museveni agreed to as a strategy to rest, re-arm and re group. Daniel Arap Moi chaired the peace talks in Nairobi where a ceasefire was agreed and a coalition government as well.
However, the recommendations of peace talks were never implemented as NRA intensified their fighting and they cut off the entire western Uganda and parts of Buganda from River Katonga.From here, the NRA staged the fiercest resistance and it is from Katonga that NRA based to capture Kampala and surrounding areas starting with Entebbe International airport using their sophisticated tactic of ‘encirclement’.
Finally, On January 26th 1986,NRA captured Kampala and UNLA soldiers fled towards the North and the East of the country and 3 days later, Yoweri Museveni was sworn in as president.
After Museveni took power, at his swearing in ceremony he said,’ Ugandans are tired of wars and death, this group comes today and gets rid of the other group, another group comes tomorrow and gets rid of the present group. For us we have come to stay, no one will get rid of us because we have come to serve you and with your mandate, we shall stay for centuries, or even millenniums and beyond’!
The ‘Movement’ government straight away embarked on a tiresome period of political reconciliation, economic recovery and winning back the international respect for Uganda while of course meeting security challenges from various armed groups.
Politically, Museveni organized a broad based government, bringing back the former government officials to help him run the country and strategically help him win political support from Ugandans who still cherished their UPC and DP. This political patronage was to further bring its own problems.
His first gain was in Buganda, which was of a very great political importance, because even it is alleged that the Museveni group is not the one which actually captured Kampala, the Baganda rebel outfit named Uganda Freedom movement which had captured most of Makindye in 1985,under Andrew Kayira is the group that captured Kampala.
But Kayira observed that there is no way he could become president given the fact that he did not even control half of Kampala. So after capturing Kampala, he declared that Museveni had captured Kampala and he was the new president and Museveni was left to tussle it out with Lutwa's troops in the suburbs of Kampala and the final battle was fought in Kisubi to block reinforcements from the north which had been flown through Entebbe and then at Zanna where Okello's forces were finally defetated and the Museveni group advanced and entered Kampala amid jubilation and joy from Ugandans singing songs of victory and joy for the man from Ankole and they joined their comrades(Kayira’s group )which had already secured all the major government installations and then Kayira handed them over to the Museveni group in exchange for a ministerial post! This was looked at by many people as being too big a compromise to make by Kayira but Kayira analyzed the fact that he had no chance of becoming president given the fact these new ‘big boys’ already controlled the rest of the country, and he agreed to work with them, although mistrust caused him to be arrested in Bunawaya together with his friends and also members of his group who were now ministers on October 7th 1986.The other ministers were Evaristo Nyanzi and David Lwanga.
Kayira was later shot dead at BBC correspondent Henry Gombya’s home in Makindye on March 6th 1987,a death that was widely blamed on Museveni.An investigation on the death was ordered by the government and it was done by the ‘elite’ Scotland yard police from the United Kingdom but it’s report has never been released.
The Baganda were Museveni’s allies because he had promised to return their exiled king and cncel the 1967 constitution ban on all kingdoms and he proved this by allowing the reigning Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi to visit parts of Buganda which were already liberated during the war to woo more Baganda to support the revolution and indeed their deal with Museveni worked because for the first time, the Baganda united and Supported the war because of their love and affection for their monarch, culture and their King.Museveni had made this deal with Mutebi from London where he had been living with his father Mutesa II.
Indeed when it came to the time of debating on the issue of return of the cultural sites that had been confiscated by Obote government after the 1967 constitution to kingdoms in National Resistance Council, Museveni was aggressively mobilizing for it’s support and indeed he succeeded and fulfilled his pledge to Mutebi by returning them on April 3rd 1992 aftyer the NRC cancelled the 1967 ban and Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi was indeed enthroned on July 31st 1993 as the 36th Kabaka of Buganda.
Museveni went ahead to include many Baganda ministers on his cabinet because Buganda was his new stronghold and he saw potential allies in the Baana Ba Kintu(Descendants of Kintu).Kintu was believed to be the first Muganda on earth.The most prominent one was Dr.Samson Kisekka who was elevated to the post of vice president on January 22nd 1991.
His working relationship with the Kabaka remained good and even the Kabaka was give the powers to nominate every Muganda for a Cabinet position in Museveni government and indeed when Ugandans went to the first polls since 1980,he won with a landslide in Buganda and even defeated Candidates from Buganda like Kawanga Ssemwogere and Kibirige Mayanja.
The Museveni government did much to improve on the human rights record by revamping to Justice system, ensuring women rights, freedom of press by liberalizing the media industry and improving the rule of law,to mention but a few. This was confirmed by appointing Dr.Specioza Wandira Kazibwe as the Vice- presient on November 14th 1994,becominggthe first woman vice president in Uganda and Africa, if not in the world!
These political milestones reached were very instrumental and they ushered Uganda into a period of economic recovery and the fastest economic growth on the universe because by mid 1998,Uganda was named as the fastest growing economy on the planet earth, even in the Guiness book of records!
This was attributed to the fact that Museveni undertook bold economic reforms in consultation with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Even the donor countries helped in offering debt relief, grants and cheap loans.
Some of the economic reforms include the privatization of many government firms which had been nationalized by Amin after the expulsion of Asians and Obote through his ‘common man's charter’ which had put Uganda on a socialist path on October 8th 1969 and his ‘Nakivubo Pronouncement’ which empowered the government to acquire 60% shares 84 major industrial, agriculture and commercial firms. By doing this,Museveni impressed mainly the western powers who were in the middle of the cold war with USSR(now Russia) competing for more influence in the world and the capitalist countries welcomed Museveni's demonstrated interest in capitalism and they rewarded him with cooperation both militarily and economically in terms of aid and grants for various development projects like ‘entandikwa scheme’ and others. This cooperation has stayed ever since then!
The government also liberalized the foreign exchange market in the 1990 / 91 budget in addition to introducing a new currency with a 30% tax charge
All this was happening amidst security challenges as many Ugandans had an ideological problem of having been brainwashed that any political disagreements need to be solved by the use of arms. The previous are entirely to blame for this.
For example Former UNLA regrouped from Sudan and made Uganda Peoples Democratic Army and attacked Uganda on August 20th 1986 but they abandoned rebellion two years later and they signed a peace accord on March 23rd 1988.
All the other armed groups did not present any major threat but Alice Lakwena’s group, the Holy Spirit movement was very strong and it proved destructive both in its active stage and after it was defeated. Its offspring, the Lord's Resistance Army has lived to haunt Uganda, and now the whole great lakes region and Central Africa to the present.
Due to the fanatic base on which Lakwena’s group was built (dominated by Northerners who had been misled by the idea that a soldier in Uganda should be from the North and A westerner can never lead them and fake religious beliefs), it was so serious that when she attempted to march to Kampala, she swept villages and territories fell one after the other but the determination by Museveni himself commanding his soldiers on the frontline managed to give Lakwena a thorough beating that she was defeated in Iganga and thousands of her rebels killed. She later fled to Kenya from where she was arrested and she ended up in a refugee camp. This war was won at very high cost since government army was ill equipped at that time, apart from only heavy machine guns that were mounted on pick up trucks and fired at a flat trajectory, that Uganda’s economy slowed down during those months.
Sudan proved to be problematic by helping former UNLA soldiers who had not agreed to the signing of the peace accord by UPDA with the Uganda government and on December 29th 1989,and the rebels backed by Sudan Army attacked Uganda through the Oraba Border, this enabled the government to concentrate and it carried out a major offensive against them and the other rebel group, the Uganda People’s Army which they defeated afterwards.
Only one major threat of armed rebellion remained, the LRA (Lord’s Resistance army) headed by Joseph Kony and the government concentrated on only this one although the Allied Democratic Forces attacked Uganda and they caused mayhem in Western Uganda from their bases in Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) afterwards.
Major political developments took place in this time and on August 11th 1992,the National Resistance council suspended political parties.
After collecting views from the people after a nationwide political consultation, the chairman of the constitution commission presented the report to the NRC and delegates were elected nationwide to parliament and they drafted the 1994 constitution and they extended the NRM interim period to after the general elections held under the new constitution on December 15th 1994.
On September 22nd 1995,the new constitution was enacted and the general elections were to be held in 1996 under Stephen Akabwai, the chairman electoral commission. Museveni won by majority 75% of the vote and extended his term to 5 years until 2001 when other elections had to be held.
Some of the political ‘mistakes’ that are blamed on Museveni were the aiding of various armed groups in the neighboring Congo and finally invading Congo to clear it of ‘Uganda’s enemies’, one of them being ADF which had attacked villages in Kasese in 1997 and they was carrying out terrorist bomb attacks in Kampala.However, his plan back fired because Ugandan Soldiers clashed with Rwanda’s forces in Kisangani in 1998 and many people were killed, mainly Congolese and Uganda lost many solidiers. Also looting by Ugandan soldiers was reported which caused Congo to file charges against Uganda in International court of Justice, a case that Congo won and Uganda was fined $10 billion for the losses!
Also Rwandese who were still actively serving in the Ugandan army invaded their ‘home’ Rwanda to ‘liberate’ it in 1994 from the government fo Juvenale Habyarimana under Museveni’s help.
Led by Maj.Fred Rwigyema,a Rwandan refugee who was the first Ugandan Defence minister under Museveni government and later,Maj Gen. Paul Kagame(current President of Rwanda) ftyer the death of Habyarimana,these people invaded Rwanda,on what was seen as Museveni’s Uganda invading Rwanda nd this war cost thousands their lives in the 1994 Rwanda Genocide which happened after a plane carrying the Burundi and Rwanda (Hutu) presidents from Arusha from peace talks with the Kagame’s (Tutsi)rebels was shot down by a surface to air missile as it prepared to land at Kigali airport,killing the two leaders instantly and revenge was taken on Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
But despite this, Museveni’s first 10 years were largely successful and it was reflected in the general elections of 1996 but whose free and fairness was questioned.
The period from 1986 to 1996 was too long and enough for various fallouts to happen with in the broad based government and they develop into rivalry and even power struggle.
Many people had felt ‘cheated’ based on the memorandums they had signed while in the bush. Some were from the government, others from the army and others from underground opposition groups (but not armed this time) and obviously from politicians from previous governments and political parties who had felt excluded for so long from what they cherished most, politics!
And since there was a ban on political parties, they did not get a chance to compete for power openly and they resorted to sabotage and propaganda.
Since Ugandans had got enough of the peace and stability and were sure of their safety, so as it is a human principle, it was time to develop other needs! So they started questioning the government’s accountability and other issues, which the government answered with intimidation.
Others went further to question the government’s decision not to open political space by banning political parties and in 2000,a referendum was carried out and Ugandans voted to remain in the Movement system and they demonstrated that they were not yet ready for multi-party politics.
This meant that the general elections of 2001 were to be held under the old Movement system.
We had more elections in January 2016 which Museveni's NRM won with an overwhelming majority.